Saturday, August 11, 2012

Theories of Everything by Logic邏輯萬有理論2015

The Grand Unified Theories are unlocked~

"Theories of Eveything by Logic" is written by Wan-Jiung Hu, MD PhD. It provides the utimate theories about the solutions of grand unified field theory, dark matter, dark energy, universal spinity, universal impelity, flight principle, origin of inertia, charge relativity, universal lightity, earthquake theory, tornado theory, geomagnetism reversal theory, utimate atom model, new chemical bond theory, heat expansion, acid-base theory, origin of homochiralty, extinction theory, sugar & lipid code, concious/subconcious theory, economic theory, strong-light interaction, and Navier-Stoke equation.

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                                         "Theories of Everything by Logic"


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Summary of content

The following descriptions are the summary of key points of the book:

Theories of everything in physics

The unit of space: space is built by smallest possible space unit called Planck volume (Planck lengh^3) or Planck cell. Planck length is the smallest possible radius to avoid space collapse into black hole in the beginning of universe (must > Schwartzchild radius). Planck length is also the unit oscillation displacement when light is passing through space. The space discontinuity can solve Zeno’s paradox.

Planck length=(h’G/c3)1/2

(h’=planck constant, G=gravity constant, c=lightspeed)

The meaning of time: time is due to simple harmonic oscillation of the smallest space unit: Planck volume. Light with E=hf can affect the unit space oscillation frequency. Thus, light can decide time. We won’t detect this oscillation if we travel at lightspeed. That is the underlying reason of special relativity’s time dilatation (time cease). Thus, time can be united as the fourth dimension of space.

The principle of inertia(mass): rest object remains at rest. It is because the rest object mass with gravity acceleration causes spacetime curvature. This spacetime curvature wraps up the object to limit its motion. It is like an iron ball on the bed. Thus, rest object remains at rest.

The principle of charge: the definition of charge is that it can cause spacetime torsion (whirlpool). If positive charge causes clockwise whirlpool, then negative charge causes counterclockwise whirlpool in the plane. The in-between spacetime arrangement among two charges decides their attraction or repulsion. Thus, same charges repulse, and opposite charges attract. Charge caused electromagnetism can explain the whirlpool shapes of spiral galaxies of universe like our milky way galaxy. There are two types of galaxies in universe: epileptic galaxies (dominant by mass-gravity) and spiral galaxies (dominant by charge-electromagnetism). Dark matter theory is hypothesized because spiral galaxies lack enough mass. If spiral galaxies are formed by electromagnetism, dark matter is not needed. The equation relating charge and spacetime torsion is called charge relativity which replaces quantum electrodynamics.

Charge relativity: F=DxAy-DyAx (Faraday tensor)

The principle of light: light is not only electromagnetic wave. It is also gravitational wave. Electromagnetic field decides photon’s amplitude, and gravity field decides photon’s frequency. Only with both amplitude and frequency, a photon wave can be made. Light carrying gravity field can explain why light can be attracted and curved by massive stars or blackholes. This can explains why gravitational wave travels at lightspeed. Besides, light’s characteristics fulfils gravitational wave which transmits gravity field away from mass source (light frequency). There is no spin-2 graviton. Photon is spin-1 boson decided by electromagnetism (rank1 tensor 4-current) and gravity (rank1 tensor 4-mometum).

Light gravity(acceleration) field: a=lp2 (lp=Planck length, ω=light angular frequency)

Light momentity(impelity/spinity)(linear/angular momentum) field i=2Ip

The principle of heat: heat is energy. Due to Unruh-Hawking effect, temperature can be linked with acceleration(T->a). The light(thermal) pressure(P=kT4/c) is the dark energy which causes spacetime accelerating expansion. Photons emitted from galaxies can travel to the edge of universe to cause 4 dimensional universe accelerating expansion via light pressure. This pressure can also explain why heat causes object expand and cold causes object shrink. Temperature is in inverse proportion to distance, and temperature is also in inverse proportion to time. The temperature-time equation is T*t=h’/k. Thus, the second law of thermodynamics (entropy arrow) and time arrow and radiation arrow can all be linked.

Light pressure-spacetime equation: σT4/c=(π2/60)h’/tx3

(T=temperature, c=lightspeed, t=time, x=length(radius) of universe)

Unruh-Hawking effect: T=ah’/2πkc (k=Boltzmann constant)

The definition of magnetism: rest charge causes electricity(Coulomb electrostatic force) and moving charge causes magnetism. Both spinning and linear moving charges can cause magnetic fields. Magnetism is the results of moving charges due to special relativity. So, the origin of magnetism is also electric charge, and there is no magnetic monopole.

Magnetic field from point charge=(u/4π)QC/r2

The definition of momentity: rest mass causes gravity and moving mass causes momentity. Momentity is also the inevitable results of moving mass due to special relativity. Momentity include two concepts: Spinity(rotational frame dragging for spinning mass) and Impelity(linear frame dragging for linear moving mass). Spinity says that a spinning mass can cause nearby spacetime (and the small mass on it) to orbit around the central mass. It can explain the stable existence of Saturn ring. If there is only gravity, Saturn ring masses should all fall onto Saturn. It can also explain why eight planets of our solar system all are orbiting in the same plane with the orbiting direction the same as sun’s spin direction. Spinity is due to angular momentum. Impelity says that a linear moving mass can cause nearby spacetime (and the small mass on it) to move along with it. It depends on linear momentum. It can explain why bird attack is so huge on the fast moving aircraft (with large linear momentum and so impelity). Rotational frame dragging effect can explain the conservation of angular momentum. A mass rotates and it will cause surrounding spacetime to rotate around it. Since the surrounding spacetime rotates, the mass on it also rotates. The mass rotates again and the spacetime rotates again. The mass rotates again and again which is the phenomenon of conservation of angular momentum. Linear frame dragging effect can also explain the conservation of linear momentum by the similar mechanism.

Spinity formula=SJj/r4

(S=2G/c2 spinity-impelity constant, J=central mass spin angular momentum, j=small mass orbiting angular momentum, r=distance between two masses)

Impelity formula=SPp/r2

(S=2G/c2 spinity-impelity constant, P=larger mass linear momentum, p=smaller mass linear momentum, r=distance between two masses)

Pair production: The light-to-light collision is the reason of particle(fermion) formation. This new theory proposes that electron and neutrino are from massive W/Z bosons after light-Higgs weak-light interaction. Neutron and proton are from massive gluons after light-Higgs strong-light interaction. This new theory can explain why neutrino has mass which didn’t explain in current standard model. The fine structure constant 1/137 is actually the electric energy divided by rest mass energy of electron or proton. This solves the mystery of the origin of 1/137. And, the particle radius of fermion(such as electron) is r=h’/2mc. The particle radius of photon is r=λ/2π. Both fermion(electron, proton etc) and photon are spinning in lightspeed c. The angular frequency w from light energy E=h’w is also the angular velocity of spinning photon.

Universe field equation: The universe spacetime is decided by gravitomomentism, electromagnetism/light, and light pressure. Gravity/momentism is spacetime curvature, and electricity/magnetism is spacetime torsion. If we combine all these above force field together, we get an unified universe field equation. The net field equation cancels out the torsion part of electromagnetism and leaves only the curvature part of gravitomomentism and light pressure. This suggests that our universe is a perfect sphere. Gravity causes the sphere to shrink and light pressure causes the sphere to expand acceleratingly. The net universe field equation is the same as Ricci flow which can explain the heat-like flow to cause a point to expand to a sphere deducted in topology Poncaire conjecture.

Universe field equation:

Guv+Fuv-Tuv= -(Ruv-1/2guvR)

(cancel out torsion part: Fuv charge relativity, Tuv Electromagnetic wave)

Ricci flow=Ruv-1/2guvR=-KEuv=-K(ρUuUv-pguv)

(ρ mass density, U velocity, p=radiation pressure, guv metric tensor)

(=gravitomomentity part minus radiation pressure part)

Unified field equation: by combining Larmor formula and Stefan-Boltzmann’s law, we can get a unified field equation to link all physics fields including electric field, magnetic field, gravity field, momentity field(spinity/impelity field), and temperature/heat field. Gravity field is also acceleration, and momentity field is also linear and angular momentum. This equation is also the transformation of light (photon) and heat. It also explains the boson radiation from fermions. If we replace EM fields with Yukawa potential/field, we can also including strong and weak interaction to explain gluon and W/Z boson radiation. Besides, Higgs and meson boson radiation can also be explained.

epsilon*BEGIm=(energy/v*ct )*c^2(light-heat transformation)
(epsilon=electric vacuum permeability, B=magnetic field, E=electric field, G=acceleration=gravity field, Im=momentity field(spinity/impelity)(angular momentum/linear momentum, T=temperature, V=volume=space, ->temperature/heat field, c=lightspeed,BE can be replaced by Yukawa field equation for strong/weak force)

Birth of universe: The creation of universe is due to the collision of primordial matter and anti-matter. The mass of the primordial matter or anti-matter is Planck mass. The charge of the primordial matter or anti-matter is Planck charge. The smallest space and time unit for the early beginning is Planck length and Planck time. The collision produced heat/light energy which is the maximal Planck temperature, and Planck frequency which initiated universe expansion. This is the Planck epoch. The highest temperature induced light pressure caused the inflation stage of early universe.

Planck mass=(h’c/4G)1/2

End of universe: Light pressure is dark energy, the driving force for universe accelerating expansion. This means temperature^4 is inverse proportional to spacetime tx3. Thus, in the early beginning universe with maximal Planck temperature, the universe spacetime (tx3) is the smallest. In the end of our universe with near absolute temperature zero, the universe spacetime will become largest to near infinite large. The time will be prolonged as near infinite long to near eternity. But, the final time duration will depend on the inverse of zero point frequency. So, there is only “uni”-verse, not “multi”-verse.

Light pressure-spacetime equation: σT4/c=(π2/60)h’/tx3

(T=temperature, c=lightspeed, t=time, x=length(radius) of universe)

Theories of everything in chemistry

Atom model: Current atom model is explained by Dirac’s quantum mechanics. However, the EPR paradox means that quantum mechanics contradicts with special relativity’s sprit: localty. Schrodinger’s cat also suggests that quantum mechanics has causality problem. Using wave function to explain massive particle is not correct examining by relativity. Bohr’s original atom model didn’t include nuclear force(pion) and magnetic force. If we consider the two forces, a deterministic atom model can be formed. In nucleus, protons and neutrons are arranged in two lines. In proton line, clockwise proton is link to a counterclockwise proton and then to a clockwise proton and so on. In neutron line, clockwise neutron is link to a counterclockwise neutron and then to a clockwise neutron and so on. The neutron line is beneath the proton line. Fermions are spinning is lightspeed. The Pauli principle is due to paired opposite-spin fermions can cancel out mutual repulsive electricity due to attractive magnetism. Thus, proton or neuron must pack in above way to keep the lowest stable energy. It is also due to the tensor component of nuclear force mediated by neutral pion whose attraction is for left-right opposite spin and for up-down same spin. Thus, the magnetic moment for proton/line and neutron/line is opposite. For odd number nucleus, there is angular momentum. For even number nucleus, there is no net angular momentum and no nuclear rotation. Because of the magnetic moment produced by proton line or neutron line, the electrons will orbit in the middle plane to align the proton or neutron magnetic field. Bohr’s angular momentum quantization is needed due to wave-particle duality. In N=1 orbit, it is a circle allowing only one paired electrons(2). In N=2 orbit, it can include two 8 shaped wave-orbit allowing maximal four paired electrons(8,8). The two opposite moving orbit in 8 shape can form a stable standing wave. In N=3 orbit, it is 18,18 electrons. In N=4 orbit, it is 32,32 electrons. And so on. Thus, atom magic number can be explained. Quantum mechanics is replaced.

Chemical bond: Based on the above atom model, we can propose a new chemical bond theory. Chemical bond can then be formed by two ways. 1. Paired electron(such as pyramid structure CH4): one electron from one atom can pair with another electron from another atom to make an electron pair with opposite spin. For example: H2. Hypervalent molecules such as SF6 is also linked by this way. 2. Fulfill standing wave of one orbit(planar structure): Electrons from one atom will donate to the orbit of the recipient atom to complete the stable standing wave for the recipient atom. For example: HCl. The electron from H atom will move to the outer orbit of Cl atom to make whole 8 electrons in the outer orbit. This is the spirit of Lewis Octet rule. N2 is also formed by this way. Because of the donator-recipient relation of the two N atoms, N2 molecule has polarity(N2 polarity is 18 versus H2 polarity is 8). This new theory can explain the planar{Ni(CN)4}2 or pyramid shapes{Co(Cl)4}2of chelating compound. The sigma or pi bond from quantum mechanics is not needed.

Theories of everything in geosciences

Earthquake theory: earthquake is actually due to abrupt light (radiation) release from crust fissures and holes. Current plate tectonic theory has several defects: 1. Plate is a slow moving structure about 1cm per 30 years 2. Earthquake happens in a certain point compared to the large scale plate 3. Plate tectonic theory cannot explain earthquake light, ionosphere anomaly during earthquake, electric/magnetic field anomaly during earthquake, infrared/radio wave anomaly during earthquake, bizarre animal behaviors who are sensible to EM wave change 4. There is huge energy from the moving of large scale plate 5. The plate sinks in trough, so the crushing force between ocean plate and continental plate should not happen 6. Hot spot places with frequent earthquake happening such as Hawaii are not located in plate boundary 7. Plate tectonic theory cannot explain the happening of earthquake in recent east America which is not located in plate boundary, although this situation is not frequent 8. Plate tectonic theory cannot explain why super moon which is very close to earth tends to increase the chance of earthquake

If earthquake is due to abrupt light release from inside earth, it can also explain why there are more earthquakes happening in earth belts. Crust fissures are located in these earth belts, so light (EM or heat wave) is more easily to release out from these locations. Light can also be released from crust holes such as volcanos in hot spots places (Hawaii etc.). This theory can also explain EM anomaly, ionosphere anomaly(affected by released EM wave), earthquake light, and abnormal animal behaviors. If there are also faults in locations not in plate boundary, light can also be released from these faults. It can explain the east America earthquake recently. Since light also carry gravity field, there should be gravity attraction between massive moon and releasing light. Thus, super moon will increase the chance of earthquake. Based on Snell’s refraction law, there is velocity difference between different frequencies of light. If we can monitor the spectrum change of light as well as the EM associated anomaly before earthquake, we will be able to predict earthquake.

Geomagnetism: The generation of planet’s or sun’s magnetic field is related to their spin. When the earth started to spin due to external torque such as sun’s spinity, its inner iron core will react. Due to the conservation of angular momentum, the orbiting electrons of iron atom in the earth core would start to rotate in the opposite direction compared to earth spin. This is Einstein-De Haas effect. When all orbiting electrons are aligned, a geomagnetic field from earth is generated. So, earth spin axis is related to the magnetic field direction. In my atom model, electrons can orbit as the direction of protons or neutrons’ opposite magnetic field from nucleus. Thus, after a certain period, electrons orbiting as protons’ magnetic field will change to orbit as neutrons’ magnetic field. Thus, it will cause a total geomagnetic change called geomagnetic reversal. As for sun, it happens for its Helium atoms. The magnetic reversal also happens for sun due to the above reason.

Tornado theory: Currently, the mechanism of tornado-genesis is unknown. It can be explained by charge relativity. Tornado usually happens in hot summer. Heat can be transformed into electric energy. Thus, supercell(clouds) can accumulate electric potential & charge. Charge can cause spacetime torsion. Thus, charge from supercell will attract near-ground air with opposite charge. A tornado wind pattern can then be generated. Because electric potential & charge play important roles in tornado, tornado clouds(supercell) usually accompany thunder and lightening.

Theories of everything in biology

Extinction theory: During earth evolution, there are many extinction events (around 23 times) including five great bio-extinction events. There is no united theory to explain the extinction phenomenon. I propose that Milankovitch cycle is the reason of repeating extinction events on earth. Milankovitch cycle is due to spinity-gravity oscillation. Milankovitch cycle is due to eccentricity of earth orbit, the axis tilt of earth, the apsidal and axial procession of earth, and the orbital inclination. Thus, there are extreme cold periods and extreme hot periods on earth. The cold periods are known as glacier periods. Temperature change is the reasons of extinction. The Milankovitch cycle in historical record is consistent with the major extinction periods. Thus, a cycling repeated extinction events happened. Comet collision was thought as the reason of dinosaur extinction. However, the total extinction of dinosaurs spends for long period (~10000 years), not a sudden disaster. Very low earth temperature was observed at that time. A comet collision cannot explain the severe global temperature drop on earth. Only low temperature can explain why warm blood animals with hairs and feather such as mammals and birds survived and cold blood animals such as dinosaurs extinct. Larger animals with larger body surface tending to lose heat were easily extinct. After then, warm blood animals started to dominate the earth during the slowing recovery of earth temperature due to their survival advantage. Besides, other major greatest comet collision events on earth were not correlated with the extinction events. Based on research calculation, the icy dust from comet could only drop temperature for two months. Volcano eruption is suggested as another reason for extinction. However, temperature raise or drop after volcano eruption is also relative transient (warming: 50-200 years, cold: only drop 0.5-0.8C). Sea level change is also observed during the big five major extinction events. Sea level change is direct linked to earth temperature change.

Protein world theory & homochiralty:

The origin of life on earth is still unknown. The most accepted theory is RNA world theory. It means RNA appears first, and then it evolves into protein and DNA. However, there are several defects. First, RNA is unstable molecule which is easily degraded. Second, RNA self catalytic ability is limited. Third, RNA as the original bio-material cannot explain homochiralty. Fourth, the building block of RNA, ribose, cannot be formed spontaneously. So, I propose a protein world theory. All amino acids can be made in primordial condition in the Urey experiment. No ribose, DNA, or RNA was found. Protein and peptide can be spontaneously formed stably from these amino acids. Protein such as prion also has self-replication (self-catalytic) ability. Protein also has mutation ability. This can be explained by dissipative structure which is the mechanism of bio-organism. 1. Open system: protein can easily get energy from outside environment in hot temperature early earth 2. Away from thermal equilibrium: protein system can use positive-feed back (autocatalytic ability) to get non-linear dynamics to disobey the second law of thermodynamics 3. Mutation/fluctuation: protein such as prion can have mutability such as conformation change to fit environmental selection. 4. Diversification: the accumulation of mutation will lead to evolution. Thus, protein as first bio-material can get negative entropy from outside environment to maintain life. That is why life is a system different from other physical objects which always gain positive entropy obeying second law of thermodynamics. If L-amino acids (certain entaniomer) are selected due to early earth environment such as sublimation or crystalization, L-peptides/proteins served as catalysis tends to catalyze the formation of D-sugars. This is the origin of mutual co-evolution of sugar-protein homochiralty. Only after the generation of D-ribose, there is the synthesis of early RNA. Protein enzyme such as RNA polymerase (no RNA primer needed) may evolve early. Thus, majority of RNA polymerases are strongly conservative. rRNA and riboses evolved later. There is more variation of ribose to do phylogenic study to decide bio-organism evolution branches. Thus, RNA-protein loop can maintain an away non-linear dissipative structure. Telomerase which uses RNA primer to make short DNA is highly similar to RNA polymerase structure. Thus, telomerase can evolve from RNA polymerase. Since DNA synthesis needs RNA primer, DNA evolved later than RNA. Although protein fulfills the dissipative structure system, it has only limited mutation ability without changing its sequences. Thus, protein tends to evolve into RNA and DNA (easier mutations and sequence change) to get more diversity to combat environmental selection. DNA can form a double helix structure to allow sex-like recombination for more diversity. It can also save genetic information. RNA becomes intermediate molecule for non-linear positive or negative feedback (RNAi). Thus, the evolution direction for early life should be protein->RNA->DNA.

Socio biology: Darwin’s evolution theory explains the competition of different species due to nature selection. The over-emphasized competition causes social Darwinism. Darwin didn’t point out the cooperation between same species apparently. There is a basic principle such as “dog doesn’t eat dog”. Same species don’t kill each other at least. In high mammals or birds, this is the origin of ethic principles. Because of the cooperation between same species, there are other moral principles developed such as sharing, love, respect, self-control, diligence, or tolerance. This is a new biological branch called socio biology. In same animals such as lions, they may kill infant lions. This may not simply be cruel or selfish behavior. Parents may see the infant animals as assets or loading. This may be correlated to abortion behavior in human. Ethics principles have the biological origin.

Concious and subconscious: Concious and subconscious are important concepts in psychiatry. Freud also developed superego, id, and ego in psychology. However, the correlation of the psychiatry/psychology and neurology is not clear. I propose that conscious/superego is located in frontal lobe, and subconscious/id is located in limbic system. Frontal lobe has output fibers to control limbic system. It has important function as judgment to distinguish right and wrong and possibly to control the sense of shame. Thus, morality is located in frontal cortex learned by socialization and education. Limbic system includes hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdale. Hyppocampus is the RAM of our brain with the function of immediate dynamic memory. Hypothalamus is the key physiological regulators for drives controlling hunger, thirst, and sex (basic instincts). Amygdala controls the emotion such as fear, anxiety, and anger. Thus, limbic system is the best candidate of Freud’s subconscious based on his definition. Thus, we can link psychiatry to neurology. Integration of conscious frontal lobe(superego) and subconscious limbic system(id) makes an ego. Dissociation status such as hypnosis, drug(ketamine), and meditation is related to the inhibition of frontal lobe and dis-integration of frontal-limbic system.

Sugar/lipid code: The central dogma is DNA->RNA->Protein->Sugar or lipid. Although the genetic or protein code is well understood, the specific sequence codes for sugar or lipid is not generalized. Sugar can be categorized into three categories: N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation, and C-glycosylation. In N-glycosylation, adding GlcNAc linked core pentasaccharide(Man3-GlcNAc-GlcNAc) has a specific amino acid sequence: Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X or Asn-X-Cys-X. X can be any amino acid except proline, aspartic acid or glutamic acid. This is the N-glycosylation sugar code. C-glycosylation is also C-mannosylation. The adding enzyme recognized a specific amino acid sequence: W-X-X-W. W is tryptophan and X is any amino acid sequence. It is the sugar code for C-glycosylation. In O-glycosylation, it has several possibilities. Proteoglycan has specific amino acid sequence: -Ser-Gly-X-Gly-(X is any amino acid). Xylose started sugar is linked to Ser residue of the proteoglycan. This is the sugar code for proteoglycan O-glycosylation. Then, collagen has a common amino acid sequence: (Gly-X-Y)n. X is proline and Y is hydroxyproline or hydroxylysine. Gal can link to hydrolysine residue of collagen. This is the sugar code for collagen. O-glycosylation is mainly the linking of GalNAc or GlcNAc to OH of Ser/Thr/Tyr of cellular protein. In Glogi, GalNAc is added to protein. In cytosol or nuclear, GlcNAc is added to protein. There is also a preferred amino acid sequence: Pro-X-Ser/Thr-Pro. X is any amino acid, but non-polar amino acid is preferred such as proline, valine, or alanine. If we compare O-glycosylation to N-glycosylation, we see a proline residue in X of Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X will prefer O-glycosylation to N-glycosylation.

About phosphorylation versus O-glycosylation. Phosphorylation also works on OH of Ser/Thr/Tyr residues like O-glycosylation. And, (Pro)-X-Ser/Thr-Pro is the common sequence for protein kinases. There is Ying-Yang switch machinery for this. After protein phosphorylation, protein will initiate a signal transduction cascade to phosphorylate other proteins to amplify the outside signals. However, the protein is easily degraded. On the other hand, O-glycosylation will make the protein become stable. But, it lacks the ability for signal transduction. If a protein is phosphorylated, then it is not O-glycosylated and vice versa.

As for the lipid codes, N-myristoylation is the attachment of myristate to N-terminal glycine of a protein. S-palmitolation is the attachment of palmitate to cytoplasmic cysteine residue of a given protein. Isoprenylation(farnesylation & geranylgeranylation) is to add the lipid group to C-terminal cysteine from the consensue sequence CaaX(a is any aliphatic amino acid). Finally, cholesterol is added to the c-terminus glycine of a given protein.

Methylation versus acetylation versus sumoylation versus ubiquitination. Acetylation is to add the acetyl-CoA carried acetyl group to the lysine residue or N-terminal of any given protein. Methylation is to add the methyl group to lysine or arginine residue of any given protein. The consensus sequence of arginine methylation is RGG, RXR, GRG. Both lysine acetylation and methylation tends to work on possible K-S/T residue. There is also Yin-Yang machinery. Protein methylation causes permanent protein inactivation, and protein acetylation gives the protein activity. Another two important regulating machinery also works on lysine residue of a protein. When there is no methyl group or acetyl group on the lysine residue of a protein, it can be recognized by an ubiquitin protein. Then, this protein will be sent to proteasome for degradation. Old proteins tend to lose their acetyl group, so they will be easily ubiquitinized and degraded. SUMO protein also recognizes lysine residue of a protein, and it causes transient inactivation of the protein. Most SUMO targeted proteins are transcription factors. SUMO recognized a specific protein sequence: YKXE/D. Y is any hydrophobic acid, K is lysine, X is any amino acids, and D/E is acidic amino acid. These four machinery competes each other for protein regulation.

Theories of everything in mathematics

Strong light interaction: Similar to electroweak interaction, strong force mediating gluons get mass from higgs via strong-light(gluons-photon) interaction. After the interaction, the eight gluons become G1-8:rb br rr/bb bg gb gr rg gg All green color including gluons gain mass, and others are still massless. The mass of G4,5,6,7=1/2Vg. Yang-Mill mass gap problem is due to the lost mass from neutron/proton by considering their three quarks’ mass. Based on strong light interaction, green-like gluons can contribute the majority of mass for neutron or proton.

Theories of everything in economics

How to solve prisoners’ dilemma?


Prisoners’ dilemma is a key problem in oligopoly. When the two sides are facing the prisoners’ dilemma, they will both pick the worse situation due to Nash equilibrium. Thus, how to solve prisoners’ dilemma is important in business as well as many aspects during our choices in daily life. Here, I will propose several methods to solve prisoners’ dilemma. 1. Final strong award 2. Final strong punishment 3. Strong coherence 4. Friendly 5. Repeated games. By using these strategies, we will be able to solve the prisoners’ dilemma.

Main text

If the two sides are falling in prisoners’ dilemma, they will pick the worse situation due to Nash equilibrium. If there is one group versus a man, the group or the man won’t pick the best situation: Both of them won’t speak out anything or don’t take any action. However, when considering game theory, they will both pick the situation which is most harmful for both of them. Thus, both of them will be severely punished like going to jail or losing life. Thus, it is very important to solve the prisoners’ dilemma. I propose several methods to solve this dilemma.

1. Final strong award: If the two sides want to avoid the punishment: going to jail or severe defamation which is the solution of Nash equilibrium. If both can get the final strong award such as a great deal of money or Nobel price etc, then both will pick don’t speak out truth or don’t take any action. Thus, this strategy can help to the two sides to avoid the worst situation. This solution is called final strong award.

2. Final strong punishment: There is another possibility for the two sides to avoid the Nash equilibrium: Final strong punishment. If there is more severe punishment than defamation or going to jail, then the both side will pick don’t speak out truth or don’t take any action. For example, both of them will lose lives if they pick Nash equilibrium. If the Nash equilibrium itself is losing lives, then stronger punishment is still needed to help to two sides to avoid Nash equilibrium. Stronger punishment like a curse or spell should be applied. A curse saying that not only the persons but also his/her family member’s lives will lose might be able to provide the stronger punishment. Only the guy in the group speaks out the truth will let the guy to avoid/stop this curse for himself/herself. Combing the above award, I will call this “Nobel-IgNobel spell.” To combine both strong award and punishment just only to break the prisoners’ dilemma. A curse needs a more supra-natural power. However, it may not be illogical. Because some spells really works such as Indian spell: Tecumseh curse or Kennedy family curse or superman curse.

3&4. Friendship or strong coherence: The both sides need to cooperate via friendship and strong coherence. Then, the both side won’t betray each other and pick against Nash equilibrium. Then, this will also solve prisoners’ dilemma.

5. Repeated game. If this game is played repeatedly, the both side will figure out the best strategy and pick against Nash equilibrium to avoid prisoners’ dilemma. Thus, repeated games will also help. A wrong solution is an eye for an eye strategy. This strategy will let the situation worse, and both of the two sides will fall in prisoners’ dilemma again.


The five strategies will be good solutions to solve prisoners’ dilemma. Thus, instead of Nash equilibrium, good results for both sides will be chosen to avoid the worse situation of prisoners’ dilemma.

1 comment:

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